M&R is a leading international public interest legal and consulting firm that advises colleagues on international criminal litigation around the world. Informed by the latest developments and personal experience in multiple jurisdictions, M&R lawyers provide sophisticated analysis, practical guidance, and thought leadership in several related areas.


L. Kathleen Roberts and Maxine Marcus, Prosecuting Forced Marriage as a Form of Sexual Violence(Un)Forgotten: Annual Report on the Prosecution of Sexual Violence as an International Crime, TRIAL International (2019).

Maxine Marcus, Louise Chappell and Andrea Durbach, ‘Nothing about us, without us, is for us’: victims and the international criminal justice system, The International Journal of Human Rights (2017).

Nushin Sarkarati and L. Kathleen Roberts, The Importance of Mass Trauma Evidence in Accountability before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, in Cambodia’s Hidden Scars: Trauma Psychology and the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts of Cambodia, 2d ed. (2016).

Maxine Marcus, Investigation of Crimes of Sexual Violence Under International Criminal Law in Prosecuting Sexual Violence as International Crime: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Series on Transitional Justice (Intersentia), January 2013.

L. Kathleen Roberts, The Long Road to Justice, Part 2, Journal of the Anglo-Somali Society, Issue No. 54, Autumn 2013.

L. Kathleen Roberts, Yousuf v. Samantar: The Long Road to Justice, Journal of the Anglo-Somali Society, Issue No. 53, Spring 2013. 

Evan Wallach and Marcus, Chapter on Command Responsibility, International Criminal Law Case Book, Third Edition, Volume III, International Enforcement, M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed. 2008.

Maxine Marcus, Post Conflict Justice in Chechnya, Post Conflict Justice, Edited by M. Cherif Bassiouni, Brill, Nijhoff, November 2002.

Legal Tools

M&R is adept at tailoring international legal tools to be applied specific national contexts. Some of the tools we have developed include:

  • Model Framework for Investigation of international criminal cases, with a focus on those involving conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV).
  • Evidence Framework for international criminal cases – tailored to the national legal context.
  • Formats for Organisation of a case involving international crimes and specifically CRSV crimes during trial.
  • Model Framework for Analysis of Evidence for a case involving CRSV crimes, including checklists for identification of gaps.
  • Model Framework for Indictments based on war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide, including those involving CRSV crimes.
  • Model Framework for Respectful and Compelling Presentation of Cases involving CRSV.
  • Model Framework for Examinations of Witnesses, including survivors/victims, experts, and others, with specific focus on proving CRSV crimes.
  • Model Framework for Investigation of Defense Witnesses and Evidence in Preparation for Challenging the Defense Case.
  • Model Framework for Cross Examinations of Defense Witnesses including fact and expert witnesses, with specific focus on proving conflict-related sexual violence crimes.
  • Model Guidelines on Selection of and Working with Expert Witnesses.
  • Mechanisms for Empowering Transformative, Reparative and Inclusive Justice for Survivors of conflict related sexual violence crimes through participation in the justice process.
  • Procedural and Evidentiary Tools for effective and respectful presentation of evidence of survivors of conflict-related sexual violence.
  • Guidelines for Determining Applicable Legal Framework for National Prosecution of CRSV as an international crime.
  • Reference Tools for Relevant Jurisprudence that can serve the prosecutors and civil parties in their work.